close panorama

3D Projections

the krpano Flash Panorama Viewer supports several 3D Panorama Projections:


all examples on this site have a user-defined context-menu included to change and test the Panorama Projections interactively.

view this context-menu settings here:

have also a look at the comparison of the Projection modes:

  • Normal Projection
    • the normal / standard 3D projection, also called rectilinear or gnomonic projection
    • at narrow viewing angles (<100°) it's like the natural human viewing
    • but at wide viewing angles it distorts very strong at the edges
    • set view.fisheye to "0" to get this projection

  • Fisheye Projection
    • with the Fisheye Projection it is possible to avoid / minimize the problems of the normal projection at wide viewing angles
    • the distortion at the egdes is much better but "straight-lines" which don't go through the center of the view become curved
    • with krpano it is possible to control how much the Fisheye Projection should be applied by interpolating between normal and fisheye projection
    • control the Fisheye Projection with the view.fisheye parameter:
      • "0.0" for none Fisheye Projection / Normal Projection
      • "1.0" for full Fisheye Projection
      • the default setting is "0.35"
    • there is also a second fisheye parameter - view.fisheyefovlink:
      • a linkage between the "fisheye" and "fov" parameters
      • this parameter controls how strong the Fisheye Projection should be applied depending on the current field of view (view.fov)
      • "0.0" for no linkage the Fisheye Projection is independent from the field of view
      • use higher values to apply the Fisheye Projection only at larger field of view
      • the default setting is "0.50"

  • Stereographic Fisheye Projection
    • a more extreme fisheye projection, it allowes much larger viewing angles
    • it allowes very interessting views likes the Little Planet View
    • it can be activated by enabling the view.stereographic parameter, and setting the view.fisheye parameter to "1.0"
    • it's only possible to use "normal" OR stereographic fisheye projection
    • the strongness of this Projection is also controlled with the view.fisheye and view.fisheyefovlink parameters

  • Architectural Projection
    • instead of "rotating" the view up and down, the view is "shifted" up and down
      (like Tilt-Shift or Perspective control lens)
    • this keeps the "vertical lines" straight in the panorama when looking up and down
    • but it is not possible to look fully up and down with it
    • the Architectural Projection can be enabled by setting the view.architectural parameter to "1.0" ("0.0" is disabled, the values between 0.0 and 1.0 are only for interpolating.
    • the addtional view.architecturalonlymiddle parameter allowes to use the Architectural Projection only in the "middle" of the panorama and when looking more up and down it switches back to Normal Projection, so it is possible to view fully up and down again.
      NOTE - this parameter is experimental at the moment - the behavior may be change in future!
    • see Comparison - Architectural Projection

Comparison between Projections - Landscape

Thanks to xRez Studio for the panorama which is used here in this demonstration.

Comparison between Projections - Peoples

Normal view - without fisheye-distortion, have a look at the heads of the people:

Fisheye view - with an low fisheye-distortion (0.45), heads look much more natural:

Extreme Fisheye example - 180° full distorted fisheye view: (fisheye=1.0, limitfov=false, fov=179)

Stereographic Fisheye example:

Thanks to Ayrton Camargo for the panorama which is used here in this demonstration.

Comparison - Architectural Projection

looking up...

looking down...